Bhagavad Geeta: Chapter 1, Verses 12-23

When someone is not following the righteous path with his heart full of viciousness, all sorts of doubts creep up. That is what happened to Duryodhana when he went to his teacher Drona and spoke those unnecessary words in the previous verses. He was perhaps trying to give himself confidence and was expecting Drona to reassure him. But Drona remained silent throughout.

Chapter 1, Verse 12

The old and experienced man in Kuru Dynasty, Bheeshma, blew his conch Simhanādam loudly, giving happiness and confidence to his army.

Having listened to Duryodhana and seeing Drona standing quietly without responding, Bheeshma knew that if he let Duryodhana continue to talk, he would be demotivating others in the army. So he went ahead and blew his conch (named Simhanādam) to give joy and confidence to his army. Although Bheeshma did this seeing the mental condition of Duryodhana, the Kauravas became the aggressors officially starting the war through this act.

Chapter 1, Verse 13

After Bheeshma blew his conch, suddenly conches, drums, trumpets, kettle drums, and cow horns blared forth. And there was a tremendous sound.

Chapter 1, Verse 14

Then, Mādhava (Sri Krishna), and Arjuna seated in a chariot yoked by white horses, blew their divine conches.

In the way that Sanjaya uses the words and descriptions, it seems pretty apparent that his sympathies lie with the Pandavas. Perhaps he is doing that to persuade Dhritarashtra to withdraw from battle.

Chapter 1, Verses 15 and 16

Hrishikesha (Sri Krishna) blew his conch named Panchajanya. Dhananjaya (Arjuna) blew his conch named Devadatta. Vrkodara (Bheema), who performs complicated tasks, blew his mighty conch named Paundra.

Yuddhistara, the son of Kunti, blew the conch named Anantavijayam. Nakula and Sahadeva blew their conches named Sugosha and Manipushpaka.

In these two verses, Sanjaya specifies the names of Sri Krishna’s and Pandavas’ conches in contrast to how he generically described the sound of conches, trumpets, etc., concerning the Kauravas.

Chapter 1, Verses 17 and 18

King of Kashi, an excellent archer; Shikhandi who single-handedly can fight ten thousand warriors; Dhrishtadyumna; Virata; Satyaki who is unconquerable; Drupada and all sons of Draupadi; mightly armed son of Subhadra, all blew their conches.

Sanjaya addresses Dhritarashtra as the Lord of the Earth, and he mentions that all the other great warriors in the Pandava Army also blew their conches.

Chapter 1, Verse 19

The tumultuous, thundering sound reverberated both heaven and earth, shattering the hearts of Dhritarashtra's sons.

Sanjaya has been vividly explaining the superiority of the Pandavas, perhaps trying to paint a clear picture in Dhritarashtra's mind so he may call off the war at least now.

Chapter 1, Verses 20 and 21

Then, seeing Dhritarashtra's sons arrayed, Arjuna, who has Hanuman on his flag banner, ready with his weapons, taking up his bow, asked Sri Krishna to place his chariot in the middle of both the armies.

Chapter 1, Verses 22 and 23

Arjuna says to Krishna that he wants to see those assembled who are desirous of fighting and who he should be fighting in this great combat that is about to start.

He continues to say that he wants to see those who have assembled there to fight, wishing to please the evil-minded Dhritarashtra’s son (Duryodhana).

Arjuna was an intelligent, courageous, focused man of action who wanted to see the enemy frontlines to strategize. He was in his element as expected, without being affected by any mental dejection until this point.

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